Information About the Orton Gillingham
The Orton Gillingham (OG) approach is research based. It is the best way to teach any skill and can be adapted to teach any content. When instruction is delivered primarily using visual modality presentations it leaves behind students who have difficulty learning that way. OG lessons incorporate a multisensory approach involving visual, auditory, kinesthetic, tactile and oral modalities. Multisensory strategies activate every students’ learning styles and strengthens the weaker modality. The OG method is linguistic and emphasizes recognizing word structures, making word analysis automatic, consequently students’ reading, and spelling improve dramatically. The OG method teaches how to analyze words into predicable segments, including phonemes, syllables, base words, prefixes, suffixes and Latin/Greek word elements. Mastering these phonograms and morphemes enable you to decode one syllable and polysyllabic words with accuracy. It explains the English language in a way that makes sense, structures the lessons by: 1- teaching why words are written in a certain way. The rules enable you to decode (read) and encode (spell). The lessons are structured to ensure success by building skills from basic to more complex, building on skills previously mastered through repetition to levels of “automaticity”. The OG method
OG & The Phonetic Code helps to unlock words, spelling and meaning of written language. letters, words and speech are the main ways humans communicate with each other. Letters have speech sounds and speech sounds can be written as letters.We used to use pictures of words as symbols; a roofed structure was a house; a stick figure, a woman. It was quite a task to memorize hundreds of pictures. Now if you know the code and rules you are able to convert letters into syllables, (parts of words), and syllables into words. You will even be able to decode and read words with many syllables. Knowing the rules of encoding (spelling) you are able to convert speech sounds into letters and words. Using the most efficient ways of teaching, such as the Orton Gillingham approach, you can master, learn to read, spell and understand written language; even you have had difficulty before.
Goals and Standards for Educational Applications
By Dorothy Bokor BS, MS, PDA
Jeff Weiner, CEO of “Young Mind Interactive”, has asked for a checklist for him and other Educational Software developers to use to set goals, standards and enable educators to assess the efficacy of products.
I have a varied perspective as an educator, parent, tutor and content writer for educational computer programs. As a parent I was chief remediator of my son’s severe dyslexia. When he graduated college we collaborated on an Orton Gillingham based computer program “Climbing with Phonics”. I was trained by Nina Traub, author of famed Orton Gillingham (OG) program, “Recipe for Reading”.
As a Special Education Teacher, Adjunct College Instructor of teachers and Supervisor of “Exceptional Children’s” programs (Sp. Ed. & Gifted) I applied the OG approach to all instruction. Research has proven the OG approach of stressing Structure, Linguistics, Multi-sensory instructional methods that also infuses Phonics and the use of repetition to “levels of mastery”, works.
Two models for instruction that also have high success rates are: The Test, Teach and Retest approach and the Neurological Impress Method. The Test, Teach and Retest method lends itself to gaming where there is a pre-test followed by feedback (score). In between, there is remediation of only those items answered incorrectly and finally another test is given to measure mastery or items which need further remediation. The Neurological Impress Method borrows from the Multi-sensory approach. The tutor reads the text, preferably into the student’s dominant ear, while the tutor guides the student’s finger under the text. Having text with a voiced overlay while the student is instructed to follow along pointing a finger, would be a form of imprinting or patterning that brain studies have found useful and effective for learning.
All these instructional methods serve as efficient models to teach everyone anything. The Gifted student thrives and the Special Ed. student can finally learn. All ages and levels including the “Life Long Learner” benefit. Efficient instructional methodology applied to computerized instruction should make use of the newest brain research; its impact on understanding the way we learn underscores the need to update Learning Theory for all educators.
The following is a checklist listing goals and standards to access and evaluate the efficacy of computer products:
- Instructional Programs should individualize instruction to accommodate a student’s Learning Style, Pace, Level and Age.
- Instructional Programs should be multi-sensory with separate visual, auditory, kinesthetic and tactile (VAKT) presentations of material available. This allows remediation of sensory weaknesses as well as teaching to strengths. Students should be able to select from different modality presentations. Multimedia presentations can keep students focused, on task and motivated.
- Instructional Programs should be structured, linking new to old skills, knowledge and concepts in an organized sequential order. Steps should lead logically to clear educational objectives.
- Instructional Programs should reinforce Linguistic skills; reinforce Language Art Skills, Knowledge and Concepts which include: Word Recognition, Vocabulary, Encoding, Decoding and Grammar Usage. The study of Phonetics is key to unlocking the code of English Written Language and Literacy.
- Instructional Programs should be repetitious to measurable levels of mastery.
- Instructional Programs should easily be implemented by Teachers, Tutors and/or Parents.
- Instructional Programs should have high interest and motivational appeal using positive and intrinsic reinforcement methods. It should demonstrate that materials can be educational and entertaining at the same time.
- Instructional Programs should fill the gap between “concept” content written for preschoolers or low skilled readers and non-fiction that requires fluent reading skills. Materials should provide important basic concepts about the natural world and core curriculum. Materials should introduce basic critical foundations upon which complex facts and ideas can eventually be built.
Goals & Objectives for Educational Computer Applications
Educational research stresses the importance of active learning. The interaction with materials stripped down to basic essential concepts, dramatically increases the learner’s ability to acquire and maintain new skills and Knowledge. Add to that structure and repetition in a multi-sensory game setting and you have an efficient teaching tool for all types of learners.
Buy incorporating these principles into their products “Young Mind Interactive” has the potential to educate the world. The potential educators had hoped for when computers first entered the educational scene.